1. Data Silos: inflexible data systems hinder data flow, making it difficult to organise, share and update. 2. Poor data quality: Despite investments in data analytics, organisations are not seeing sufficient results. 3. Data opacity: Data governance requires firms to achieve data transparency but legacy data systems hinder it. 4. Unsecure data: legacy platforms create siloed data that it difficult to trace and hence secure. 5. Lack of control over data.